Tuesday, April 9, 2013

Module #12

1. Find one interactive website that explains the anatomy and structure of volcanoes. Post your link in your response. Be sure that this site is useful, relevant and reputable (i.e. government or university site).

2. Research one famous volcanic eruption that has occurred in Earth's history. List and briefly describe the following in your post:

Where? When? How? What? 

3. Find one video that would be a good resource to supplement the information above. (include the link)


  1. http://www.neok12.com/Volcanoes.htm

    I chose the Volcanic Eruption Krakatoa. Krakatoa is a volcanic island situated in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia.The Krakatoa volcanoes erupted in 1883 causing massive tsunamis and killing 36,500 people.

    The shock waves that transpired from the eruption were recorded on barographs around the world. The explosion is considered the loudest in modern history.

    Contemporary geologists believe the cause of the great Krakatoa explosion was because volcano's vents sunk below sea level, letting seawater into the volcano and causing a massive series of pyroclastic explosions.

    Supporting Video:


  2. 1. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/

    2. One very famous volcano which occurred in 79 AD was the eruption of Mt. Veisuvius. Mt. Vesuvius is located along the southern coast of Italy, near the city of Naples. The eruption at Mt. Veisuvius is known as one of the most catastrophic in history because it completely covered to cities, Pompeii and Stabiae in lava and ash. The eruption killed thousands of people instantly due to the puroclastic flow produced from the eruption. The volcano is unlikely to erupt again in the near future because it is not close to the volcano hot spot known as the ring of fire.

    3. www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bsmv6PyKs0

  3. http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volcanoes/structure.php

    In AD 79, the stratovolcano of Mount Vesuvius in the gulf of Naples, Italy would send ash and fumes 20.5 miles into the air, killing an estimated 16,000 people. The eruption would ultimately release a hundred thousand times the thermal energy of the Hiroshima bombing. Today, Mount Vesuvius is known as the most dangerous volcano on the planet, due to the 3 million people living nearby as well as recent historical eruptions. Vesuvius is the only volcano on the European mainland to erupt in the last 100 years.


  4. http://www.geography4kids.com/files/earth_volcano.html

    In 1815, Mt.Tambora erupted. Mt.Tambora is in Indonesia. This was the largest eruption in recorded history and killed 92 000 people. The eruption was due to extreme overpressure in the magma chamber. The major eruption was preceded by 6 months to 3 years of steaming and smaller eruptions. The eruption ejected large amounts of ash and lava. The ash blocked out the sun and caused the average global temperature to drop that year.It has been refered to as “The year without summer”. This resulted in the deaths of many people worldwide because crops and livestock failed.


  5. http://studynotes.ie/leaving-cert/geography/structure-of-a-volcano/

    In May 1980, Mt St Helens erupted in Washington with the force of over 27,000 atomic bombs. The ash deposit was enough to bury downtown Seattle to the height of the Space Needle. The volcano caused 57 deaths. Luckily, the volcano had been closed to the public because of Scientists that Advised the government to do so. In the next 6 months, 7 more eruptions would take place.


  6. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/

    The Piton de la Fournaise in France is one of the most active volcano's. It most recently erupted on December 9th 2010, I don't believe this eruption caused any deaths.


  7. The event I chose was the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States. It was the first eruption in the 48 mainland states in the United States since the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak in California. The eruption was preceeded by two months of earthquakes. In total, the eruption caused the death of 57 people, $1.1 billion in property damage and ash to be deposited in 11 states.


    1. Website: http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer

  8. Website that talks about anatomy of volcano: http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/ess05_int_nyiragongo-fla/

    2012 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull where volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruption, caused enormous disruption to air travels across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2012. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2012. The volcano affected more than 100,000 travellers. Seismic activity started at the end of 2009 and gradually increased in intensity until on 20 March 2012. The volcanic eruption started from March 20 to June 23,2010.
    Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6dDesUPkMo

    References: https://www.google.ca/#hl=en&gs_rn=9&gs_ri=psy-ab&tok=zVh3XoZ8IyhTrQvTnZNQwQ&cp=9&gs_id=10&xhr=t&q=iceland+volcano&es_nrs=true&pf=p&output=search&sclient=psy-ab&oq=iceland+v&gs_l=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.45218183,d.dmQ&fp=7e856f6845cc837b&biw=1366&bih=667

  9. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7533964.stm

    Mount Etna,the most active volcano in Europe, in Sicily, Italy, erupted on November 2nd, 1928 reeking havoc on the surrounding towns. Vents opened up at various altitudes throughout the following days, and on November 6th, lava reached the town of Mascali, quickly destroying everything in it's path. The death toll was not too high as the residents of Mascali had time to evacuate their homes before the eruptions intensified. It is said that many also were able to save treasured belongings and such due to the amount of time they had to evacuate.


  10. Interactive website: http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/natural_disasters/volcano/framesource_volcano.html

    The volcanic eruption which I chose to research was the eruption of the Santa Maria Volcano in 1902. Located in Guatemala, it is considered one of the largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century. The eruption itself lasted for 19 days and produced 5.5 square kilometres of dacite pyroclastic debris, as well as 273,000 square kilometres of pumice. Volcanic ash from the explosion was even found in locations as far as San Francisco - an indication of exactly how large the eruption was. The volcano itself is situated on top of a subduction zone, with the Cocos plate subducting underneath the Caribbean plate.

    Due to the fact that this volcanic eruption occurred so long ago, very little is known about the direct causes of the eruption. What is known, however, is that, before the eruption, the volcano had been dormant for over 500 years - possibly even a thousand - and that its awakening had be preceded by a seismic swarm of earthquakes, with a major one occurring several month prior to the eruption.

    Though the eruption of 1902 is not one which is well recorded or one which has much information, there are no easily accessible videos regarding it on the internet. However, there are several interesting videos on its more recent eruptions which show what the one of 1902 could have looked like: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvY0wsOBdiI

  11. http://www.neok12.com/Volcanoes.htm

    In 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull erupted several times in March and April. As only a moderate volcano that is expected to erupt once every century, it lies away from the Icelandic rift and the Ring of Fire where the majority if volcanoes occur but on a hotspot where the mantle and its heat are located closer to the surface. Underneath this stratovolcano is a magma chamber, which is fed by the tectonic divergence of the Mid-Atlanitc ridge. The oceanic plate subduction under another lithospheric plate and melts due to its proximity and succeptibility to the heat of the mantle. It was very explosive because as the magma chambers filled up, volcanic rock basalt met with silica rich substances, and because that means the magma is more viscous, more pressure is built up. The main issue of the after effects of the eruptions was the massive ash cloud that rose over much of Europe, but only two deaths were reported.


  12. Read:
    And then take this easy quiz:

    A volcano only well-known for the way it was handled, Eldfell, on the populated island of Heimaey, Iceland. This volcano came as a surprise in the night to the 5,300 population of the town. This island measures 13.4 square kilometers of which the lava destroyed half of it. The reason it erupted was because it's on a divergent plate boundary, this conder cone volcano was dormant for over 5000 years, and was suddenly awoken and kept flowing for several months! It is mostly famous because the islanders that stayed behind used the sea water to spray onto the oncoming lava that was going to destroy the harbor, which is their only way of income for the island. They were heroes but the islanders ha to rebuild all of their life they used to know.
    Relative YouTube clip: